Belt and Road Initiative: Understanding China’s Foreign Policy Strategy

China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has been a contentious topic in international affairs since it was announced by President Xi Jinping in 2013. The mega-project aiming to connect Central Asia, Europe, and Africa via economic trade routes has received mixed responses from the international community for its lofty goals. Despite criticism about the plan’s […]

Lessons from the Canada-Spain Turbot War: A Cautionary Tale of Multilateral Governance

In 1995, Canada and Spain entered into a maritime dispute off the eastern coast of Canada. Canadian warships intercepted and seized Spanish fishing vessels not obeying the quotas of multilateral institutions tasked with fostering intergovernmental cooperation in the area. This conflict, dubbed the Turbot War, is an example of Canada use of unilateral force when multilateralism fell short. Lessons from this case should be applied to the changing Far North.